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Additional Resources

(1) State-Specific Resources for Virginia Health Care Professionals

Information on the Virginia PMP

Virginia Pharmacists are authorized to prescribe naloxone to anyone seeking it

Transcript of the Virginia Department of Health telebriefing discussing the opioid addiction crisis Audio of is available here

A Healthy Virginia: Reducing Prescription Drug and Heroin Abuse


(2) Resources and Information on Opioid Addiction and Prescribing

A Proactive Response to Prescription Opioid Abuse
In a New England Journal of Medicine Special Report, the FDA expressed their support of the CDC’s Guideline for Prescribing Opioids. The report provides details of the FDA’s response to the opioid epidemic. It also discusses FDA actions in several areas, including the following: 1) Reconsidering opioid labeling and post marketing study requirements; 2) Prioritizing the development of opioid formulas that deter abuse as well as non-opioid alternatives for pain relief; and 3) Refining guidelines for opioid use.

The Prescription Opioid Epidemic: An Evidence-Based Approach
In May 2014, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health convened a gathering of experts from a wide range of disciplines to review what we know about prescription opioid abuse and addiction, to identify strategies for addressing the crisis and to make recommendations for action. The findings from the meeting are published in this report.

States Require Opioid Prescribers to Check for ‘Doctor Shopping’
This article discusses the practice of “doctor shopping” by patients with opioid addictions. The article includes a map showing which states (as of May 2016) have voluntary or mandatory laws related to the prescribing of controlled substances.


(3) Resources and Information on Treating Chronic Noncancer Pain

VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain
This 160-page report was published in 2010 by the Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain Working Group established by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense. The report provides a detailed algorithm that can be used to determine whether opioid therapy is appropriate and to develop a treatment plan for pain patients. It also offers in-depth discussions of the following: 1) Starting an opioid therapy trial; 2) Assessing a patient’s response to therapy and making necessary adjustments; 3) Following up with patients; and, 4) Discontinuing opioid therapy.

Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense Resources for Prescribers
VA/DoD fact sheets are available on the following opioid related subjects: Opioid Consult Referral; Opioid for Primary Care Non-Cancer Pain; Opioid Managing Side Effects; Opioid Tapering; and Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain Patient Tool.

Opioid Tapering Program Helps Patients Take Less Medication without More Pain
A study conducted by Beth Darnall, PhD. Clinical Associate Professor in the Division of Pain Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Colorado physician, Richard L. Stieg, MD found that many patients are willing to be weaned off opioids if given the opportunity and proper guidance.

Opioids for Chronic Noncancer Pain: A Position Paper of the American Academy of Neurology
This position paper evaluates the use of chronic opioid analgesic therapy. It summarizes best practices that can be applied to safely use opioids for chronic noncancer pain. It includes one type of risk-benefit equation that medical professionals can use to determine the appropriateness of opioid therapy.

Guidelines for Responsible Opioid Prescribing in Chronic Non-Cancer Pain
The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) developed a two-part report on the use of opioids for patients with chronic noncancer pain. Part 1 provides an Evidence Assessment, while Part 2 presents Guidance. [PART 1] [PART 2]

The Potential Impact on Children of the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain: Above All, Do No Harm
An editorial in JAMA Pediatrics notes that the 2016 CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain does not address managing pain in children. It suggests the need for guidance in this area and makes broad suggestions for treating chronic pain and using opioids in pediatric patients.


(4) Studies on the Effectiveness of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

As more states enact laws requiring prescribers to check patients’ opioid history prior to writing a prescription, studies are beginning to emerge regarding the effectiveness of mandatory use of PDMPs and PMPs. Following are links to several studies:

Mandatory Provider Review And Pain Clinic Laws Reduce The Amounts Of Opioids Prescribed And Overdose Death Rates

Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists